The Research Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability (RISS) at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) was founded in 2008. With major focus on the development of evaluation technologies, its mission is to contribute to realizing a safe and sustainable society. For example, we can find chemical substances in the everyday environment not only in the form of industrially manufactured products but also as raw materials used in manufacturing plants. The use of chemical substances involves many benefits, such as convenience and effectiveness, but it also involves risks. In the plant, combustion of the chemical substances themselves can lead to fires and explosions. Moreover, chemical substances discarded after use or released during accidents at a plant can directly affect the human body and the environment. Safety science is about clarifying this relationship and evaluating how we can reduce each type of risk so as to comprehensively minimize risks while maximizing benefits. The objects of risk evaluation include not only currently existing chemical substances, but also new substances such as nanomaterials and technologies thought to be important in future industries.